Playing It Safe: Preschool Playground Guidelines
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The National Recreation and Park Association's "Dirty Dozen" Most Common Hazards on the Playground
- Falls to inappropriate surfacing material
- Inadequate space for use of equipment
- Protrusion and entanglement hazards
- Entrapment in openings
- Insufficient spacing between equipment
- Trip hazards
- Lack of supervision
- Age-inappropriate activities
- Lack of maintenance
- Sharp-edge hazards
- Platforms without guardrails
- Equipment not recommended for playgrounds
By Pam Gelman, M.A.
Key Factors to Consider
When parents are checking out a preschool's playground, they should note the following:
Location: If the play yard is not accessible directly from the classroom, parents need to walk to the outdoor space and note any potential hazards, such as cracks in or prickly plants near the walkway. Also, there should not be any open bodies of water or access to the street. The yard needs to have boundaries or fencing on all sides.
Play structures: Stationary play structures should have an empty zone extending at least six feet. The height of these structures should also be no higher than six feet. Swings should be two to three feet apart to prevent collisions, and the swing zone should be twice the height of the swing beam. Foundations need to be securely anchored, without any exposed large or sharp pieces of hardware. "Parents should look to see that the equipment is well maintained with no loose nuts and bolts," suggests Thompson.
Surface materials: To prevent serious injuries from falls , there needs to be a soft surface under playground equipment and extending six feet in all directions. The depth of the surfacing depends on the material and testing, but "we still feel strongly that the depth be 12 inches since people are not careful about keeping the depth at an evenly raked height," says Thompson. Loose-fill materials that work well are sand, loose wood products or loose rubber pieces. Pea gravel is a common surface material, although "it is probably best not to have for preschool children since they might consider eating the gravel," says Thompson.
Another safe option is a unitary surface such as rubber tiles or poured-in-place rubber. Inappropriate surface materials are asphalt, concrete, dirt, grass and chemically treated wood mulch.
Supervision: There needs to be as much supervision of kids outside in the play yard as inside the classroom. Also, there should be a means of communication available (phone or walkie-talkie) in case of an emergency. Teachers need to explain the play yard rules and be attentive to children using the equipment in unanticipated, creative ways. "The adults at the preschool should be moving while they are supervising children on the equipment, not standing and talking together," says Thompson.
Landscaping: Planting flowers or a vegetable patch adds color and softness to the playground setting. But thought must be given to the plants selected. Are they sharp to the touch? Do they attract bees? Are they poisonous if ingested? Low-maintenance gardens work well in busy preschools.
Healthy Risk Taking
Teachers and parents want kids to have fun in playgrounds. They want kids to try out new skills, be challenged and take healthy risks. It's the grown-ups' job to make sure there are age-appropriate risks set up for children and not injury-causing hazards.
A Parent's Checklist for Preschool Playground Safety
- Is the play structure designed for preschoolers?
- How old is the play structure? Has it been updated to meet current safety standards?
- Has the playground been inspected by a CPSI?
- Are playground safety rules discussed with the children?
- What is the child-to-adult ratio when outside? How many adults are supervising when children are on play equipment?
- Do platforms on play structures have guardrails?
- Is the equipment well maintained with no broken parts, rust, cracks or splinters and free of head-entrapments? What is the system for playground maintenance?
- What is the surfacing material? If loose-fill, what is the depth?
- How large is the space? NAEYC accreditation criteria require a minimum of 75 square feet of play space outdoors per child.
- Is there shade available? Tables for kids to sit and drink water?
- Is the sandbox inspected regularly? Is the sandbox covered when not in use?
- How is the landscape maintained?
- Is the play equipment accessible to all, including children with disabilities?