The basics of early reading: Sounds and words

Decoding is one of the four essential reading skills. Find out if your second or third grader is on track.

By GreatSchools Staff

To understand decoding, it helps to think about written language as essentially a code or series of symbols for oral language. To read, a child needs to be able to decode written language, which means being able to recognize and sound out each letter of the alphabet. A child also needs to recognize and be able to pronounce letter blends – letters commonly found grouped together. Frequently found letter blends include "th", "ch", "st", and "qu"; more complicated blends include "ough" and "ought." Your child might be having difficulty with decoding if she regularly struggles with recognizing letter sounds and blend sounds. The result is that she wouldn't be able to easily sound out many words in a text at her grade level. A child with strong decoding skills can recognize familiar words quickly, and easily figure out new words.

An early reader with good decoding skills can:

Other necessary reading skills: