By Diana Townsend-Butterworth
Children tear holiday wrapping paper into small pieces of varying shapes, arrange them in patterns, and paste them on sheets of colored paper. When the collages are finished, their teacher asks the children questions, encouraging them to talk about their work. In Mary Jane Belt's Long Island, New York, classroom, children sit at small tables, cutting out apple shapes, coloring them with crayons, and pasting them on the outline of a tree. Some of the children make holes in their apples and poke pieces of wiggly worm candy through the holes. In another classroom, a child stands at an easel carefully dipping a brush into small jars of paint and watching the colors blend together on the paper.
Art is an important part of your child's early childhood education, regardless of whether you think he will grow up to be another Picasso. Children are active learners, and making art is a hands-on activity that expands imaginations and exercises creativity. It also develops small motor control and eye-hand coordination, and sharpens children's powers of observation. The fundamentals of art: Children learn the fundamentals of art — color, line, shape, form and texture — by painting and drawing, making collages, fashioning three-dimensional objects out of clay, and talking about their work, says Alice W. Schwarz, associate museum educator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Three and four year olds recognize patterns, learn about primary colors, and discover how to mix two colors to make a third. Vocabularies expand to include words such as "texture," "relief," and "overlapping." By creating art and looking at it, children gain an understanding of composition, balance, and symmetry.
Art projects often begin with a discussion about a theme or color. The discussion is followed by set-up time, when the children put out the materials they need: scissors, paper, paint, crayons, etc. During the time they are working on the project, either individually or in small groups, they talk about their creations. After projects are completed, the children clean up, making sure everything is returned to its proper place.
The walls of preschool classrooms are often covered with works of art (the preschoolers' own art together with reproductions from great masters), giving the room itself a creative energy.
Trips to museums sharpen children's observational skills and require them to use their brains to put all the details together, says Schwarz. Children looking at Grant Wood's painting The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere learn about an historic event, but they also figure out how to piece a story together from details of line, shape, and color.
Looking at illustrations in books gives preschoolers a sense of the way stories unfold and helps them learn to make predictions about what will happen next, says Bernice E. Cullinan, PhD, professor emerita at New York University and the author of Read to Me — Raising Kids Who Love to Read.
Creating and looking at art has a positive influence on many different areas of your child's intellectual, emotional and social development. She develops symbolic understanding by representing her experiences in paintings, drawings, collages, and models. This familiarity with symbols is key to beginning reading. Plus, when she talks about her artwork, your child is practicing communication skills and expanding her vocabulary- also critical for reading.