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By Marshall Raskind, Ph.D.
Many researchers consider Dr. Emmy Werner the leading pioneer in the study of risk and resilience research in general. Her groundbreaking research followed 698 children born on the Hawaiian island of Kauai in 1955 for a period of 40 years.1,2,3 As part of this study, Werner followed a group of 22 individuals with LD (13 boys, 9 girls) from birth to 32 years of age in an effort to identify the protective factors that lead to successful coping in early adulthood.4 Results of the study identified five "clusters" of protective factors that served to promote positive outcomes for this group of individuals with LD:
Another key study employing a risk and resilience model in LD was conducted by Dr. Paul Gerber and colleagues. 5, 6 Gerber did retrospective interviews with 71 adults with LD across the
External Manifestations (how the person adapts)
In my own research, my colleagues and I traced the lives of 41 individuals - over a twenty-year period - who had been identified as "learning disabled" early in childhood. 7,8 These children (14 girls, 27 boys) attended a specialized school and service center for children with learning difficulties in Pasadena,
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