By Jessica Kelmon
This year, your second grader’s language skills will grow exponentially. Simple sentences fall by the wayside as compound sentences with irregular past-tense verbs (e.g. I went to the fountain and drank water.) and descriptive words take your child’s writing to the next level. While the Common Core Standards are rigorous — young writers are expected to use information from “provided sources” to answer questions and to conduct “shared research and writing projects” — remember that this year your child will be building skills in gradual, steady progression, starting with a new facility with words.
All that sounding-it-out practice is about to pay off! After years of rhyming and practicing high-frequency and sight words, your child has learned a lot more than you may realize about the rules of spelling — and this year she’ll show you exactly what she’s learned.
Gone, for the most part, are the phonetic spellings with missing vowels between consonants — “ct” for “cat” and “trk” for “truck”, for example — that characterize “invented spelling.” Instead, your child will show fluency in irregular plural nouns (e.g. mice and feet), easily use and spell the past tenses of irregular verbs (e.g. hid, sat, told), begin to understand the concept of root words and how the meanings can be modified with a prefix (e.g. happy/unhappy and write/rewrite) or suffix (e.g. addition/additional and clear/clearly) or as part of a compound word (e.g. lamppost and playground).
Your child will also more easily recognize tricky spelling patterns (think cage versus badge and boy versus boil) because of all the work she’s done to learn phonemes and the conventions of spelling. But now when your second grader is confronted with a new word, in addition to using root words and context to figure out what it means, expect your child to look it up! This year, both dictionaries and glossaries become common tools of the writing trade. You’ll find your child challenged to use both regularly — especially for weekly spelling tests. (See our weekly second grade spelling lists for examples.)
What are G&P? Why, grammar and punctuation of course! Second graders learn to use handy new language tools this year — starting with apostrophes to show possession (e.g. Matt’s dog) and create common contractions (e.g. isn’t and don’t), commas for greetings and closings when writing letters (e.g. Dear Mom, and Love, Isla), and capitalizing the first letters of holidays, products, and geographic names.
Your child should also learn to use new and increasingly precise words to express herself, including collective nouns (e.g. the group, the class), reflexive pronouns (e.g. myself, ourselves), and adjectives and adverbs to add detail in their writing. But adding detail isn’t enough: your second grader needs to learn how adjectives and adverbs are different and choose between them based on what they’re modifying (e.g. “The small horse ran quickly” – the adjective small modifies the noun — horse — and the adverb quickly modifies the action — ran.)
To put these tools to the test, your second grader will be challenged to write — and rewrite — simple and compound sentences to show what she’s learned about language, grammar, and structure.
Under the Common Core Standards, second graders should build on the three kinds of writing they’ve been improving on since kindergarten: opinion, informative, and narrative writing. Opinion and informative writing will likely start with kids reading one or more books and responding to what they’ve learned. In an opinion piece, your child should introduce his topic clearly, state his opinion about that topic, give a few reasons to support his opinion using linking words (e.g. because, and, also) to connect his reasons and opinion, and then write a full sentence or a few sentences to conclude his opinion.
In informative writing, your child should introduce his topic clearly, use facts and other information — such as definitions — to write a few clear, well thought-out points about his topic, and then write one or more sentences in conclusion.
Writing a narrative is essentially telling a story, and your child’s story may be inspired by books, experiences, or pure imagination. Your second grader’s story should describe an event — or a series of events — using details to describe the characters’ actions, thoughts, and feelings. In addition to careful use of descriptive verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, your second grader should use sentence order, verb tense, and temporal words (e.g. after, following, later) to clearly put the events in order. At the end of a second grader’s narrative writing, there should be some sense of the story coming to a close. (Hint: not just by tacking on “The End.”)
Strong writing means not stopping after the first draft — a lesson your second grader is likely to learn through experience this year. Don’t be surprised to see your child spending more time on a single piece of writing — creating a first draft, revising, and editing.
Once a first draft is turned in, the teacher or other students will go over it with your child. They may ask questions about the work to elicit details or facts that could be added or clarified, prompt your child to find more information on the topic, make sure your child’s word choices convey what she means, make sure there’s an introduction and a conclusion, and help organize the order of events in the story. Using all these questions and suggestions as guidance, your child will do a revision — adding, reordering, and refining the content.
After one or more revisions, the teacher will likely help your child with the final edit — focusing on spelling and grammar, capitalizing proper nouns, making sure nouns and verbs are in agreement, and checking that periods and question marks are used correctly. These steps — doing a first draft, revising one or more drafts, and editing the final piece — help second graders learn that gathering and recalling information, organizing their thoughts, strengthening and clarifying their ideas, and improving grammar and presentation are all essential to the writing process.
When your child is working on a writing assignment at home, it may be tempting to correct spelling and grammar errors or make other suggestions, but it’s a good idea to talk to the teacher before you jump in. She may prefer to see your student’s unvarnished effort so she can work with your child to get it right as part of the learning process.
Check out this related worksheet:
Reading a series of books about wetlands and writing a report — individually or as part of a group. Answering questions about habitats by recalling information from a specific book. Recording observations about an experiment. Sound like second grade work? Under the Common Core Standards, kids learn to do research, and, when asked, answer questions drawing on what they’ve learned. In their writing, this means that kids will pull information from provided books, websites, class presentations, and other sources to form their opinions, arguments, and narratives. When they add this information, they should be able to recall where they learned it.
Working with peers is a skill emphasized in the Common Core Standards, so your child will likely work on at least one group project. She’ll also be expected to give other students feedback to improve their writing drafts by adding details or facts and making sure information is presented in the correct order. The standards also call for students to work together and with the teacher to “use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing.” In some cases this will mean typing and printing a report — but don’t be surprised if your second grader’s work is published as part of a class blog!
Despite what you may have heard, the Common Core Standards don’t do away with handwriting — but neither do they spell out specific benchmarks beyond printing the alphabet in kindergarten and first grade. The standards acknowledge that your child still needs to know how to write legibly — and that means penmanship matters. The standards also say that, with assistance from a teacher, kids need to use digital tools to produce and publish their work, but no specific typing skills are outlined until third grade. What does this mean for handwriting, cursive, and typing? That’s a great question to ask the teacher.
Updated November 2013 to align with the Common Core Standards
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