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Violent media and aggression

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By Christian Barnes-Young

The conclusion of the public health community, based on over 30 years of research, is that viewing entertainment violence can lead to increases in aggressive attitudes, values and behavior, particularly in children.

There is also a growing body of research that suggests individuals with a predisposition for sensation seeking, or risk taking, are more likely to be influenced by violent media. Other researchers have identified certain personality characteristics that may predispose a person to be aggressive and more susceptible to the influence of violent media. The research also suggests that playing violent video games potentially has the greatest impact on aggression in 11-13 year-old males. With these characteristics identified, researchers are able to control for them in their studies, and findings still demonstrate that exposure to violent media increases aggression.

In general, the scientific community is well-satisfied that it has demonstrated that violent media increases aggression in gamers. The body of research led six major professional organizations — the American Psychological Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Psychiatric Association — to sign a joint statement on the topic in 2000. The authors concluded:

At this time, well over 1,000 studies ... point overwhelmingly to a causal connection between media violence and aggressive behavior in some children. The conclusion of the public health community, based on over 30 years of research, is that viewing entertainment violence can lead to increases in aggressive attitudes, values and behavior, particularly in children.

Its effects are measurable and long-lasting. Moreover, prolonged viewing of media violence can lead to emotional desensitization toward violence in real life.

The statement added, "We in no way mean to imply that entertainment violence is the sole, or even necessarily the most important factor contributing to youth aggression, anti-social attitudes, and violence." Since the release of this joint statement, and with further investigation, researchers are more confident that a relationship between violence in the media and aggression exists. Anderson and his colleagues wrote in 2003, "The scientific debate over whether media violence increases aggression and violence is essentially over."

There is also a growing body of research that suggests individuals with a predisposition for sensation seeking, or risk taking, are more likely to be influenced by violent media.

Given the overwhelming evidence that violent media increases aggression, should parents throw out their gaming systems? None of the research completed to date suggests that playing violent video games will, by itself, cause someone to behave violently. There are many factors that lead to aggression — exposure to violent media has been identified as one with a mild to moderate effect. One reason violent media gets so much attention is that it is a fairly easy and inexpensive factor to address. If parents are concerned about their children's tendency to be aggressive, it is not too difficult to choose nonviolent sources of entertainment. Moreover, video games cost about the same, whether the game contains violence or not.

If violent video games can lead to an increase in aggression, what about nonviolent games? Peter Fischer and colleagues at Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich, Germany, have recently begun to look at how nonviolent games influence behavior. Their study found that a history of playing racing games was associated with an increase in traffic accidents and a decrease in cautious driving. It was also reported that playing racing games increased risk-taking behavior in computer-simulated critical traffic situations. It appears that the scientific community is satisfied that violent video games impact thoughts, emotions, and behavior and now research is branching out to study the influence of nonviolent games.

Parents should also be aware that recent work by a professor at Texas A&M International University is critical of methodologies, theories, and conclusions of the majority of research on the effects of media violence on aggression. Christopher Ferguson, a clinical psychologist with a focus on criminal behavior, believes the exposure to violent media's effect size is much smaller than has been reported in the majority of research. He has written about a bias within the scientific community to publish articles that suggest a relationship between violent media and aggressive behavior. Dr. Ferguson proposes that a genetic predisposition to behave aggressively, exposure to family violence, and having an aggressive personality, are much better predictors of violent behavior than exposure to violent media. The professor does not leave exposure to violent media completely out of his theoretical model: Exposure to violent media is included in the model that Dr. Ferguson supports as a "stylistic catalyst." In The Catalyst Model of Violent Crime, playing a violent video game will not cause violent behavior but it can influence how violent acts are carried out. Dr. Ferguson's stance seems to be that of a cautious voice against alarmist reactions to questionable research with variable effects.

Looking forward, researchers will continue to investigate the nature of how the relationship between violent media and aggressive behavior actually works and ways to potentially intervene. Overall, however, studies suggest that the most effective method to combat the aggressive effects of violent media is parental involvement, and the gaming industry took steps in the right direction by implementing a rating system to help inform this before a system was forced upon it.

Christian Barnes-Young is an avid gamer and clinical consultant for the Continuum of Care, a South Carolina state agency that serves children with severe emotional disturbance.

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Comments from GreatSchools.org readers

01/10/2011:
"This is a good report, its nice to see one that supports evidence for both sides of the arguement. I personally believe that the worst cases of increased aggression (or lack of driving care for example) stem from games that are the most realistic. Playing Gran Turismo for hours is far more likely to make a person feel as though they can drive that way in a real car because it is a highly accurate representation of real life and so it becomes difficult for players to seperate fantasy from reality. I do not beleive that playing violent videogames increases aggression in the long term, no study ever made has shown any kind of increase in long-term behaviour from violent media. All the studies that exposed participants to violent media and then tested them in someway showed an increased short-term aggression, this was usually gone by the next day and gone completly by the next week. But the question still remains as to what prolonged exposure to violent media has on us, we are a! ll exposed to violence in some way, shape or form everyday, not just through TV and Videogames."
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