Did your kindergartner learn the academic and social skills kids are expected to know before beginning first grade? This list will give you a rough idea of what your child should have mastered in kindergarten. If your child is not strong in some of these skills, choose a few to practice this summer. Above all, keep things easy — for yourself and for your child! No two kids are alike, especially when it comes to hitting developmental benchmarks. And at this young age, extra pressure isn’t good for anyone.

## By the end of kindergarten, kids should be able to:

• Cut along a line with scissors.
• Understand time concepts like yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
• Pay attention for 15 to 20 minutes.
• Follow three-step directions, such as go to the shelf, choose a book, then sit quietly on the rug.
• Hold a crayon or pencil for writing.
• Share materials, such as crayons and blocks.
• Know the eight basic colors: red, yellow, blue, green, orange, black, white, and pink.
• Recognize and write the letters of the alphabet in upper- and lowercase forms (get letter-writing practice).
• Know the relationship between letters and the sounds they make.
• Recognize sight words such as the and show interest in reading or trying to read simple sentences. (See a list of kindergarten sight words and try these snap words worksheets.)
• Spell their first and last name.
• Write consonant-vowel-consonant words such as bat and fan (get some practice here).
• Retell the main points of a story that has been read aloud (see what a child retelling a story looks like).
• Express an opinion by drawing, writing, or speaking (e.g. “My favorite book is…”).
• Identify and be able to write numbers from 0 to 20 (get practice writing numbers).
• Count by ones and tens to 100.
• Do addition problems with sums up to 10 (get addition practice).
• Do subtraction problems with numbers 0 to 10.
• Identify basic shapes, such as square, triangle, rectangle, and circle (get practice with shapes).
• Know their address and phone number (try this worksheet).

Learn more about the kindergarten classroom in these subject areas: reading, writing, language arts, math, science, social studies, art, music, and physical education.